Women’s Worlds 2005 9th International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women June 2005
“Comparative Analyses of Militarization of Sex :Japanese Army in Colonial
Koreaand American Occupation Forces in Liberated ” Korea
“Documents on US military’s attitude towards prostitution and sexual violence of the
USmilitary in in the 1940s and 1950s” South Korea
林博史HAYASHI Hirofumi (Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama)
*All documents are collections of the US National Archives.
military’s attitude towards prostitution US
the 24th Corps, US → United States Armed Forces, Korea(USAFK)
1948 Deterioration of discipline and Increase of Venereal Diseases(VD) among US soldiers
1948 Increase of wrongful acts by GIs March-May 130 arrested in Seoul
Countermeasure against VD
Periodical Inspection of prostitutes
1949 VD inspection of ‘Entertainers’ 53664 inspected
After the Korean War began
The 8th Army moved to
June 1950− VD rate decreased but increased again from the beginning of 1951
1951 Pusan Population increased from 470.000 to 900.000
April 1951 Registered Entertainers (waitress, dancer, prostitute) 2161
un-registered 1454 Total 3615 VD inspection
March 1951 1336 VD infected among 2543 inspected (53.7%)
Cooperation with the UN Civil Assistance
(UNCACK) and Police Command, Korea
May 1951 The Pusan team of the UNCACK drew up a VD control plan
July 1951 UNCACK Plan for VD Control Program in Korea
Periodical inspection of Entertainers started in
UNCACK’s assistance to the Health Department of Korea
The Regulated Prostitution System was introduced by the initiative of the
military before the Korean War. After the Korean War broke out and the front line began to remain stagnant at the 38th parallel, the regulated prostitution system began to be implemented first in Pusan. US
This policy in
Koreawas different from that in Japanwhere the military officially prohibited its GIs from visiting prostitution houses. US
2 Documents on Criminal Offenses by the
March 1951 EUSAK alarmed the increase of criminal offenses by US soldiers.
April 1951 EUSAK inspected every troop.
The commander was shocked by reports from each troop.
June 1951 EUSAK instructed preventive measures.
June 1951 Far East Command(FEC) in
warned the 8th Army of increasing criminal offenses, such as rape, murder, robbery and so on. Japan
There are several documents on criminal offenses including sexual violence by US soldiers in Korea, Okinawa, and Japan: such as investigation reports, periodical reports, memorandum, and so on.
[Summary] “A Historical Study of the US Military’s Policy toward Prostitution”
in The Journal of The Association for Research on the Impact of War and Military Bases on Women's Human Rights, No.7, March 2005. HAYASHI, Hirofumi
[This is a summary of my article in Japanese.]
The Sexual violence and pro-prostitution attitude of the
USmilitary have been severely criticized in and other countries. Several articles have recently been devoted to the study of the Japan USmilitary’s pro-prostitution policy in Japanduring the occupation and in the 1950s. These studies demonstrate that the US military protected and even encouraged prostitution for their soldiers. However, only few attempts have so far been made at the historical survey of the policy toward prostitution of the US USmilitary, including the military authorities in and expeditionary forces stationed at various parts of the world. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Washington DC USmilitary’s policy toward prostitution from the beginning of the 20th century, when the USacquired overseas territories such as Guam, the and so on, to the 1950s. The War Department adopted the policy of suppressing prostitution in the early 1910s, partly because it was influenced by the progressivism in those days, but mainly because it was afraid of the spread of venereal diseases. Although this policy has been maintained for a long time, it began to waver during the Second World War because of the development of an infallible remedy for venereal diseases. Since venereal diseases came to be easily cured, the policy virtually began to be relaxed abroad while it was still maintained for public principle in order not to be blamed at home. Briefly stated, the Philippines USpolicy has been different from that of and European countries that officially regulated prostitution. Japan
I am conducting research on the
USpolicy to prostitution and military sexual violence in the 1940s and 1950s in East Asia including Korea, the Philippines, Okinawa, and . I would be grateful if you could give me any advice or suggestion. Thank you. Japan